One of the most famous cities in the world and the most famous Arab and Muslim cities. The cradle of Islam and its source, the birthplace of the Prophet and his companions, the capital of the Rashidiya Caliphate, and the Muslims' kiss in their prayers. Makkah's holy area is about 550 square kilometers, of which 88 km are built, while the area surrounding the Holy Mosque is about six square kilometers. Founded 2000 years ago as a small village in the Jouf Valley, surrounded by mountains in all its aspects, Makkah is characterized by hard basalt rocks. According to the Islamic faith, people began to come and settle in it after the migration of Sarah and her son Ismail, and burst the well of Zamzam, and start construction of the building of the Kaaba by Ibrahim and Ismail his son. Today, the population of Mecca is about 1,800,000, which is the number Millions during the Hajj season, which takes place during Eid al-Adha every year, to the Grand Mosque, Mei, Muzdalifa and Mount Arafa. Mecca is the largest religious tourism destination in the world in terms of the number of arrivals, as tourism is concentrated in the whole of Saudi Arabia, Mecca and Medina in religious tourism. One of the ancient names of the makkah of the hill of Taberna is contained in the Torah, and this hill is today located in the borders of the city of Mecca. In the past, Mecca was the scene of a dramatic incident, where Abraha al-Habashi wanted to destroy it, attacking it with elephants. However, Islamic beliefs say that God sent Ababil birds to throw stones at them from Sejil. They defeated him to know this year the year of the elephant in which the Prophet Muhammad ), 570 CE. Mecca experienced volatile periods during the Rashidi era, especially after the death of Uthman bin Afan, and then turned to the source of opposition to the rule of the Umayyads in the Levant to end this opposition to the killing of Hussein bin Ali in Karbala. Then the city and its holy mosque were strengthened during the reign of the Abbasids until the ruling families followed them. In contemporary times, the rule of the contemporary Saud family was concerned with the strengthening of Mecca and the expansion of the Grand Mosque. Mecca also includes many mosques, besides the Grand Mosque, most notably: Al-Tanaim Mosque, Namera Mosque, the Mosque of Answer, Al-Bayha Mosque and Al-Raya Mosque. Like the Kingdom, Mecca follows the desert climate, and because it is located in the tropical region, because of its relative distance from the Red Sea coast, its climate is characterized by being dry, It is very hot in the summer and may reach about 47 degrees Celsius in June. In the winter, Makkah differs from the rest of the Arabian Peninsula, where it is warm and temperatures range from 25 degrees to 17 degrees Celsius at night, with frequent rainfall in November, December and January. Mecca has many mountains and valleys surrounding it. The most famous of these mountains: Mount of Light, Mount Thor, Mount Omar, Mount Khandamah, Mount Omar, Mount Arafa, Mount Abu Qabis and Mount Qaiqaa (century). The most prominent valleys are: Wadi Fatima, Wadi Naaman, Wadi Arana, Wadi Dam and Wadi Abqar. While Mecca was a station for convoys between North and South in the days of ignorance, the markets developed in them and literary forums, and achieved its people Great fortunes. Today, the modern economy of Mecca depends mainly on religious seasons and government spending. Hajj and Umrah are a major source of income for the people of Mecca. Makkah is famous for its many public parks, with nearly 200 parks, 170 of which include children's playgrounds. The most important of these parks are Al-Mesfla Park, Al-Rusaifah Park and the Arabian Peninsula Park. As for the recreational places in Mecca, a number of amusement parks such as children's park and amusement parks, Badr Amusement Park and the children's playgrounds of the Hijaz market and Dora Al-Nu'man Amusement Park and Al-Hokair Amusement Park. In Mecca, the central markets and commercial centers are growing Al Otaibi, Souq Al Hijaz, Hospitality Market, Aziziyah Market, Souq Al-Majaz and Citi Plaza. In Mecca, other historical and religious landmarks are prominent and are part of the development of the Islamic religion in its early stages. Hager is the laurel where the Prophet Muhammad worshiped and where revelation was first revealed. It is located on the highest mountain of light east of Mecca, about four kilometers from the Grand Mosque. Ghar Thur is an important place in Makkah, where the highest mountain of Thur is located south of Makkah, where the name is associated with the prophet's migration to the city, entered by the Prophet and his companion Abu Bakr al-Siddiq. And Mona, a desert area located 5 kilometers east of Mecca, between it and Mount Arafa. It is an important station in annual pilgrimage. In the area of Mina there The Jamarat Bridge, which is dedicated to the pilgrims' journey and they throw the Jamara of Aqaba during the Hajj season. King Abdul Aziz International Airport, which is about 19 kilometers north of Jeddah, is the largest airport in the kingdom and is therefore the biggest window for the arrival of pilgrims and pilgrims to Mecca without an airport. There is also Taif Airport, which is 70 kilometers from Makkah, a very important airport near Makkah and it is Taif Airport, one of the Saudi resorts. By virtue of the mountainous nature of Mecca, there are about 50 tunnels for cars and 10 for pedestrians. As for the roads, it is a highway network linking it to other cities and areas, most notably: Al-Hada road Which leads to Taif, Makkah-Jeddah Highway, Makkah-Medina Highway, Makkah-Jizan Highway, and Makkah Ring Road. The city of Mecca will link to the modern train network through the Al Haramain Express train, and there is a train project that is the train of the holy feelings for Mani, Arafah and Muzdalifah.